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Rare diagnostic tests at Exacte Labs

Quantiferone test TB-Feron IGRA

Immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis infection (TB-Feron IGRA) - The test is designed to diagnose tuberculosis infection (including latent) in children, immunocompromised persons, and persons with contraindications to tuberculin skin tests.

Advantages and limitations of "Quantiferone test TB-Feron IGRA - immunodiagnostics of tuberculosis infection" test.

Advantages of the study:

  • High specificity and sensitivity;
  • does not require intradermal injection;
  • does not require a second visit of the patient to evaluate the result;
  • objective instrumental laboratory assessment of the result;
  • no contraindications;
  • no adverse reactions;
  • the result is independent of previous BCG vaccination.
Immunological study of T-cell immune status to SARS-Cov-2 coronavirus antigens Tigra-Test

The SARS-CoV-2 TigraTest® is designed to detect T cells that respond to stimulation with SARS-CoV-2-specific antigens and allows counting of individual activated T cells. This assay can be applied to all patients, regardless of age, gender, immune status, or therapy.

Advantages of the test:

  • A quick way to learn about the body's long-term (more than 6 months) protection at the cellular level against reinfection with COVID-19;
  • Ability to identify the need for vaccination, as well as evaluate the effectiveness of the immune response after vaccination;
  • The study is absolutely safe and has no contraindications.
Study of interferon status

Interferons (IFNs) are the most important component of the innate nonspecific defense of the body against infections (the name interferons came from their property to interfere with viral infection cells). This is a family of proteins of local (autocrine and paracrine) regulation, which can activate intracellular processes and intercellular interactions that provide resistance to viral infections, enhance innate and acquired immune responses, modulate normal and tumor cell development and death processes. The body's resistance to viral infections and a number of other diseases largely depends on the activity of a group of genes of the interferon system. The study of IS makes it possible to evaluate the state of nonspecific resistance of the organism, which is an important indicator of innate immunity and serves as an integral criterion of the functional state of the interferon system.

Assessment of individual sensitivity of a patient's leukocytes to various immunoactive drugs allows to choose the therapeutically most effective one and determine the optimal treatment tactics with monitoring of IS indices in dynamics.

Indications for prescribing the IS study may be as follows: acute and chronic forms of viral infections, recurrent opportunistic infections, allergic and autoimmune diseases, congenital and acquired defects of the IFN system, monitoring of IS parameters as a criterion of effectiveness and control of proposed therapy, clinical studies of immunoactive drugs.

Baseline assessment of the result of IS indices can reveal different states of the organism:

  • The acute phase of infectious disease is associated with an increase in serum and a decrease in induced IFN production. In allergic diseases (bronchial asthma, urticaria) the level of circulating interferon correlates with the severity of the disease.
  • Decreased IFN producing capacity of blood leukocytes combined with the presence of spontaneous IFN-alpha and/or IFN-gamma production and the absence of circulating serum IFN in blood may indicate a persistent viral or other intracellular infection.
  • Decreased IFN-producing capacity of blood leukocytes combined with the absence of circulating serum IFN in the blood indicates a defective IFN system, which may be both a cause and a consequence of acute and chronic viral diseases and is considered an indication for interferon-stimulatory therapy.
  • Chronic viral infections (herpes, hepatitis), multiple sclerosis, etc. are accompanied by suppression of all indicators of interferon status.
  • Autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) are characterized by suppression of induced production of interferon alpha.
  • Suppressed induced production of gamma-interferon accompanies malignancies (acute lymph leukemia, etc.).

The results of interferon status should be considered in conjunction with other laboratory and clinical anamnestic data. Evaluation of the changes detected can serve as a guide in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of diseases of both viral and non-viral etiology.

Antibodies to NR2 subunit of NMDA glutamate receptor in serum

This method allows the preclinical diagnosis of the presence and extent of chronic cerebral ischemia and can be used to assess the risk of acute ischemic stroke in patients with risk factors (hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg), atrial fibrillation, atrial fibrillation, and atrial fibrillation. st), atrial fibrillation, dyslipidemia (hypercholesterolemia >5.2 mmol/L, LDL >2.5 mmol/L), smoking, diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia, estrogen use) and patients who have had a previous ischemic stroke. Can be used in vascular surgery to assess the risk of early postoperative neurological complications.

Indications for the test:

  • Dyscirculatory encephalopathy
  • Arterial hypertension
  • History of stroke(s)
  • Dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Cardiac rhythm disturbances
  • Preparation for open-heart surgery and monitoring of possible ischemic brain damage after it (see 1-8)

Clinical significance of the test:

Stenotic or thrombotic processes in cerebral vessels lead to disruption of glucose and oxygen supply to neurons, which causes cerebral ischemia. Excessive glutamate release due to cerebral tissue ischemization causes hyperactivation, including NMDA-type glutamate receptors. NMDA receptors are major excitatory neuroreceptors that regulate the transmission of electrical signals between neurons and maintain brain microvessels. As a result of hyperactivation and hyperproduction, NMDA receptors are cleaved by serine protease to form NR2-subunits, peptides that penetrate the ischemia-compromised blood-brain barrier and enter the bloodstream.

Because of the immune isolation of the brain, the general immune system is activated and begins to produce IgG antibodies to the NR2 peptide. These IgG antibodies can persist in the bloodstream for up to 3-6 months after one or more ischemic episodes, and their increased titer directly correlates with the risk of TIA and ischemic stroke.

Main advantages of the test:

  • NR2 antibodies are independent hematologic markers to confirm the presence of cerebral ischemia in recent months
  • NR2 antibodies can be detected even 3-6 months after ischemic stroke
  • Monitoring the NR2 antibody levels over time will assess the course of chronic cerebral ischemia and may serve as a marker of treatment efficacy in patients at risk or who have already suffered an ischemic stroke
  • Their presence may indicate an increased risk of transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic stroke.
Hepcidin 25 (bioactive)

Hepsidine is a peptide that regulates iron metabolism in the body. It is a marker for additional evaluation of iron status in iron deficiency anemia and pathological conditions associated with iron overload. It is a marker of anemia.

Hepsidine can block the protein ferroportin, which is a transmembrane iron transporter, and thus interfere with the entry of iron into the blood..

Hepsidine production in the body is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism depending on plasma iron levels. In addition, the level of hepcidin can increase in diseases of the kidneys and liver.

The study is prescribed:

  • When refractory iron deficiency anemia is suspected;
  • In pathological conditions caused by iron overload;
  • For diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic diseases
EPR-test (electron paramagnetic resonance study of the transport properties of albumin)

The study is a unique method for recording changes in the conformational properties of serum albumin, and which reveals its characteristic changes in oncological processes. As a result of clinical studies it was proved that patients with various types of malignant neoplasms have specific changes in the spatial structure and physicochemical properties of albumin molecules. When cancer occurs, the body produces low-molecular-weight substances (biological markers), which, when combined with albumin, change its structure and functional properties. The method is based on registration of conformational changes of an albumin molecule by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), which allows in vitro diagnostics and monitoring of the activity of malignant proliferation. It can be used for nonspecific control of physiological and pathological changes in homeostasis during cancer treatment for subsequent adjustment of the applied treatment.

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